For beginners, it is probably a good idea to start with some minimal examples; here I provide a few examples for Rnw, LaTeX, Markdown and HTML, respectively. class: title-slide. Note the intermediate markdown, foo. Writing reproducible reports in R with markdown, knitr and pandoc. Both SAS ODS Report Writing Interface and R Markdown are suggested to be used in the process of patient profile generation, they always can meet your requirements easily and effectively. Dynamic Documents You can choose to export the finished report as a html, pdf, MS Word, ODT, RTF, or markdown document; or as a html or pdf based slide show. Markdown-server is a simple web application. Create a BibTex file to store citation data to use with R Markdown. R Markdown is a great tool for integrating data analysis and report writing, but it can be a bit daunting to get started. The second part is the main body that contains R code chunks and prose in Markdown format. The output is one file that includes figures, text and citations. Furthermore The report is written as normal text, so knowledge of HTML is not required. com rmarkdown 0. The RStudio gives you a default template to write. R code can be put directly into a R Markdown report so it is not necessary to keep your writing (e. This online course about Reporting with R Markdown covers a key part of what a future data analyst would require. 96) has some really nice features for creating dynamic reports with Yihui Xie’s knitr. Writing R Markdown in DSS ¶ R Markdown is an extension of the markdown language that enables you to mix formatted text with code written in several languages (in particular R or Python). Learn how to write a data report quickly and effectively with the R Markdown package, and share your results with your friends, colleagues or the rest of the world. ## Sales Report {. R code can be put directly into a R Markdown report so it is not necessary to keep your writing (e. Introduction R Markdown is one of the most popular data science tools and is used to save and execute code to create exceptional reports whice are easily shareable. Furthermore The report is written as normal text, so knowledge of HTML is not required. Markdown is designed to be easy to write, and, even more importantly, easy to read: A Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain text, without looking like it’s been marked up with tags or formatting instructions. measure and report test coverage for R, C, C++ and Fortran code in R packages. R Markdown makes your analysis more reproducible by connecting your code, figures and descriptive text. R, Python and awk) and any output markup languages (e. R Markdown uses markdown syntax, which provides an easy way of creating documents that can be converted to many other file types, while embeding R code in the report, so it is not necessary to keep the report and R script separately. I wrote my thesis with R Markdown last year, and sure spent quite some time browsing…. My hope is the reader already knows what markdown syntax looks like. Sign in to report. You compile the R Markdown document to an html webpage by clicking the “Knit” button in the upper-left. Markdown([**kwargs])¶ The same options are available when initializing the markdown. R Markdown allows you to generate PDFs for printing or reporting purposes directly. You can quickly insert chunks like these into your file with. At the 2018 RStudio conference in San Diego, my colleague Jon and I gave a talk about how we use R Markdown to quickly go from nothing, to analysis, to a branded report that we can pass off to clients. It provides examples of using plots, output, in-line R code, and markdown. R Markdown parameters are the ultimate form of reproducibility. Boilerplate can be copied next to the input and the problem statement. I am not familiar with R markdown but I see you use Latex code here. The R Markdown file can contain just text like simple written report or a much more complex document with embedded R code to create charts, graphs, maps, or any other plot that can be produced using R. And now time for a horizontal break and off to R!-----## R markdown **R markdown** is a version of Markdown that is expanded to support running R code: in between your text. Check this out for a quick intro. R Markdown preview pane not showing evaluated inline R commands windows 10. R Markdown Basics. A directory to save knitted document (report) in R Markdown / Notebook Is there a way to set a directory, in which a knitted document (HTML, pdf or another kind of report) is saved from inside the. Django markdown is django application that allows use markdown wysiwyg in flatpages, admin forms and other forms. R Markdown files are useful because. Document with pleasure!. Add citations to an R Markdown report. your R script. Even if you are a long-time R Markdown user, you may have missed another possibility. title[ # Hello, R Markdown! ]. You can customize the subject line used when an email of a report is generated. The main idea of Writage is providing opportunity to write in Markdown to those who like Microsoft Word. For beginners, it is probably a good idea to start with some minimal examples; here I provide a few examples for Rnw, LaTeX, Markdown and HTML, respectively. tabset} ### By Product (tab content) ### By Region (tab content) Here’s what tabbed sections look like within a rendered document: Authoring Enhancements. Learn how to create interactive web experiences and printable PDFs. The companion article, Introduction to interactive documents, will show you how to turn an R Markdown report into an interactive document with Shiny components. “Elegant, flexible and fast dynamic report generation with R” An R package which allows R code and a document template to be combined Changes to the R code filter through to the document when the report is re-run. html, pdf, docx) to generate reports or web applications. The main purpose of this post is to provide a case study of using R Markdown to prepare a quick reproducible report. Make your R markdown report Copy your R markdown report in the MobileTrigger report folder Verify you can request the report on your mobile device. He wrote the popular lubridate package and is the author of Hands On Programming with R and the upcoming book, Data Science with R, from O’Reilly Media. This includes the YAML, the general markdown (or text) component, and code chunks. Welcome to week 1 of Earth Analytics! In week 1 you will explore data related to the 2013 Colorado Floods. An R Markdown document or presentation interweaves computation, output and written. I spend way too much time fiddling with formatting, page layout, and typesetting before everything looks the way I want it. R Markdown: The Definitive Guide is the first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. Three big advantages of this approach:. Markdown allows you to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, then convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML). This document will likely knit to HTML by default; hold down the Knit button to change it to PDF. Regions of markdown will be passed through unchanged. Write Your Blog Post in R Markdown. For beginners, it is probably a good idea to start with some minimal examples; here I provide a few examples for Rnw, LaTeX, Markdown and HTML, respectively. You can: Transform your file into a pdf, html, or Microsoft Word document—even a slideshow—at the click of a button. It’s a subtle difference, but one that I’ve found nimble and powerful in all the right places. markdown function, except that the class does not accept a source text string on initialization. Markdown is a bit of a missed opportunity in some respects. An R Markdown document is written in markdown (an easy-to-write plain text format) and contains chunks of embedded R code, like the document below. Something like this:. To make a demo report, go to the R-studio menu bar and select File -> New File -> R markdown. Change the YAML header so your report now contains a non-floating TOC. These include the R Markdown and Knitr packages but the actual workhorse of generating your documents is called Pandoc. Check working directory. Workflow R Markdown is a format for writing reproducible, dynamic reports with R. While we are utilising R Markdown to build our reports, it relies on Markdown to create a large amount of the document. R Markdown is a framework for writing versatile, reproducible reports from R. If everything went well, you should see a nicely formatted webpage/ report pop up in RStudio's built-in browser. A general-purpose tool for dynamic report generation in R. You need R and RStudio to complete this tutorial. So you have some code, data and a cool result, now it's time to communicate this with your collaborators (or supervisor). We will show how RStudio Connect can manage multiple variations of that report. There’s now an optional outline. The previous article, Introduction to R Markdown, described how to write R Markdown files. Be aware that in order to create such a kind of document, you need to select Document from the New R Markdown window. Parameters are useful when you want to re-render the same report with distinct values for various key inputs, for example: Running a report specific to a department or geographic region. A Markdown plugin with GFM and a matching preview style. You can use this very post as a starting point, if you’d like. You can integrate not just R and LaTeX, but also R and Markdown (as well as some other formats). We will use R Markdown to explore these remarkable paintings. Find great discounts on our two-a-day daily markdown merchandise at L. These HTML reports enhance collaboration: It is much more easy to comment on an analysis when the R code, the R output and the plots are available in the report. Note the intermediate markdown, foo. This tutorial describes how to use R Markdown. R Markdown files are useful because. There are lots of Markdown editors such as iA Writer, Texts, WriteMonkey or Byword and online Markdown writing services, like StackEdit, Dillinger or Markable for people who like to have minimalistic, distraction-free interface. You won't find a report-generating system nearly as powerful and easy-to-use as R Markdown in any other statistical software. (Is there a way for me to adjust the size of the picture to my liking)? If anyone knows anything cool/formatting about R Markdown could you also let me know? I know that # makes a big title for a paragraph, and ** ** bolds. Using two files (an r script and an rmarkdown script) we can create a series of reports. It natively exports tables from R to Markdown. Also you should have an earth-analytics directory set up on your computer with a /data directory with it. Jockers; Data Analysis for the Life Sciences by Rafael Irizarry and. There are a LaTeX template, an HTML template and a markdown template in knitr. You can open it here in RStudio Cloud. R Markdown preview pane not showing evaluated inline R commands windows 10. This is a quick set of analyses of the California Test Score dataset. R, Python and awk) and any output markup languages (e. I've built a Shiny application (or R Markdown report, or Flexdashboard, or …) that uses data from a CSV file that I have access to in my local development environment. I'm going to use rocker/verse image from the rocker R images for creating the report. This includes both manually triggered and scheduled execution of content (See section 5. Nowadays QR codes are scanned by a smartphone and contain. We will use R Markdown to explore these remarkable paintings. Often times tables will require more width for their display than the standard Distill article text width. VERSION HISTORY. Blog Joel Spolsky and Clive Thompson discuss the past, present, and future of coding. Package addins. Printing Markdown with GitPrint. How do you do that?. Join Martin John Hadley for an in-depth discussion in this video, Report your data with R Markdown, part of Creating Reports and Presentations with R Markdown and RStudio. This is the default R Markdown document and comes with a lot of pointers about how to do things. Reporting automation using R Markdown Every business, no matter how big or small, simple or sophisticated, requires regular reports to run. To do this, you start inline code with `r, type the code you want to run, and close it again. How to add \newpage in Rmarkdown in a smart way? Ask Question I wonder if one could simply use LaTeX \newpage command in R markdown v2 in a different way than. This includes both manually triggered and scheduled execution of content (See section 5. When editing your R Markdown report, you can “build” it to generate the output document. Writing reports and manuscripts in R Markdown Agenda. rmd is an R package that provides a set of RStudio add-ins for R Markdown. But why should we be interested in PDF as a format?. An R Markdown (. Options and Themes. What is Markdown? Markdown is a way to style text on the web. txt is already created; however it is vital to store it in the same folder ",. R Markdown is a file format for making dynamic documents with R. Let me show. Markdown source files, file type. With R Markdown, you can easily create reproducible data analysis reports, presentations, dashboards, interactive applications, books, dissertations, websites, and journal articles, while enjoying the simplicity of Markdown and the great power of. I've built a Shiny application (or R Markdown report, or Flexdashboard, or …) that uses data from a CSV file that I have access to in my local development environment. After an introduction to concepts related to reproducible programming and research, demonstrations of standard markdown, as well as overviews of different formats, will be provided, including exercises. Yart, ie, this package leans on earlier work by Aaron Wolen in his pandoc-letter repository, and extends it for use from R via the rmarkdown package. Let's compare Jupyter with the R Markdown Notebook! There are four aspects that you will find interesting to consider: notebook sharing, code execution, version control, and project management. It is almost completely compliant with the reference implementation, though there are a few very minor differences. They are quick and easy to. By default, TOCs go only two levels of sections deep. Now write your blog post in R Markdown. Images, in particular, are a powerful means of communication in a report, whether they be data visualizations, diagrams, or pictures. Dean Attali called it “knitr’s best hidden gem”. There are two great ways of writing R Markdown reports. These are great tools for reproducible research. In your homework, you will get R and RStudio set up on your laptop and learn how to create an R Markdown document and convert it to a pdf using knitr. Plot with ggplot2 and plotly within knitr reports. Rmd' and saved in the same. If I change output_dir in review. I was unsure at first how to put the numerator and denominator degrees of freedom for the F statistic as subscripts. r rmarkdown git An R Markdown template using the bookdown package for preparing a PhD thesis at the. R Markdown is a file format for making dynamic documents with R. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Here is an example of a live. The solution: combining R+knitr+rmarkdown+pander+pandoc (it is easier than it is spelled). Most of the code in these pages can be copied and pasted into the R command window if you want to see them in action. This document will introduce participants to the basics of R Markdown. R Markdown will make the list available as params within any R code chunk in the report. # Section title -----). R Markdown files are useful because. R file for each result. Rmd) file creates two problems. Creating Pretty Documents From R Markdown. This is a Python implementation of John Gruber’s Markdown. Anciennement video2brain - Transform the findings from your data science projects into high-quality reports and presentations with R Markdown and RStudio. The goal of the cookbook is to provide solutions to common tasks and problems in analyzing data. r rmarkdown git An R Markdown template using the bookdown package for preparing a PhD thesis at the. Once the basic R programming control structures are understood, users can use the R language as a powerful environment to perform complex custom analyses of almost any type of data. What You Need. At line 7 in the YAML header, pick an official RMarkdown style preset (the theme key in YAML syntax) for your report (other than "default" and "darkly"), replacing the placeholder "blank". There are three general components of an R Markdown file that you will eventually become accustomed to. R Markdown uses markdown syntax, which provides […]. Let me show. Even if you are a long-time R Markdown user, you may have missed another possibility. Make your R markdown report Copy your R markdown report in the MobileTrigger report folder Verify you can request the report on your mobile device. You will need: The Orders_by_customer dataset. Have you ever wondered about creating a QR code and adding on your R markdown report? According to Wikipedia, the QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode designed in Japan for the automotive industry. This tutorial describes how to use R Markdown. The reports shows the data completeness status of MeteoSwiss’ observation network (SwissMetNet). It was well-received by students and faculty that worked with it and this past summer I worked on updating it to make it even nicer for students. When the R markdown dialogue window pops up, select "document” and enter a title and author. See rmarkdown_format for details. The first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. Get started by learning how to make your R Markdown documents interactive, and then unleash the full flexibility of analytic app development with shiny. Contrast this to trying to explain to someone how to get a certain type of formatting in MS Word. You can quickly insert chunks like these into your file with. There are three general components of an R Markdown file that you will eventually become accustomed to. Versions of this blog entry are available as an HTML page, PDF and a text file containing the info from the Rmd file. See rmarkdown_format for details. R has a nice library called flexdashboard which you can use for creating dashboards out of RMarkdown files. The creation of an R Markdown template as the only thing residing in a package is an even easier task. Rmd extension you will be able to create this document in R Markdown and edit it to fit your report requirements. How it works. Rmd’ and saved in the same. Anciennement video2brain - Transform the findings from your data science projects into high-quality reports and presentations with R Markdown and RStudio. Here is an. Three big advantages of this approach:. To improve reproducibility, iDEP generates custom R code based on your data and choices of parameters. Rnw), and use Literate Programming techniques to extract the R code to the R/ directory. Give your report a set of parameters, use them in your code, and then set the parameter values to whatever you like each time you re-render the report. Markdown is a tool used to create formatted documents. You should first read the page about Markdown. Sync with Dropbox, Github, Google Drive or OneDrive. First, you need to. So you have some code, data and a cool result, now it’s time to communicate this with your collaborators (or supervisor). For scientific projects we often using knitr and R markdown in RStudio to share results and code either in HTML or PDF format. How can I hide the R code and just show the graph and r. Reporting Data Through R Markdown. In your homework, you will get R and RStudio set up on your laptop and learn how to create an R Markdown document and convert it to a pdf using knitr. Have you ever wondered about creating a QR code and adding on your R markdown report? According to Wikipedia, the QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode designed in Japan for the automotive industry. Welcome to the Cookbook for R. Learn this in an. Please include with your report: (1) the example input; (2) the output you expected; (3) the output Markdown actually produced. Turn your analyses into high quality documents, reports, presentations and dashboards with R Markdown. I want to prepare training materials for students and, as much I can, try to avoid copy and paste syntax into html (doc, pdf). Markdown([**kwargs])¶ The same options are available when initializing the markdown. com part of the URL with gitprint. In this post I'd like to introduce the R Markdown template for business reports by INWTlab. This was news to me until this week. This document will introduce participants to the basics of R Markdown. Why name your R Markdown chunks? When writing R Markdown documents, be it a single report or a whole book based on dozens of documents, it’s crucial to name your R Markdown chunks. TLDR: This tutorial teaches you how to install LaTeX, R and R Markdown on macOS High Sierra. Select and upload your file containing markdown markup and we'll convert it to a PDF for you in an instant. ## Sales Report {. Creating Notebooks from R Scripts Overview. If everything went well, you should see a nicely formatted webpage/ report pop up in RStudio's built-in browser. Rmd extension you will be able to create this document in R Markdown and edit it to fit your report requirements. Clicking on the "Focus" button in the lower right corner of the editor will enable Focus Mode, which highlights only the current text around the cursor while fading the rest. Also, I want to automatically adjust the picture to the report, like not taking up more than a page, or less than a page. R Markdown supports all of the base pandoc markdown features as well as some optional features for compatibility with GitHub Flavored Markdown (which previous versions of R Markdown were based on). Text in simple markdown format. Many scientific publications can be thought of as a final report of a data analysis. R Markdown: The Definitive Guide is the first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. To create an R Markdown report you can use RStudio, by clicking File > New File > R Notebook in the toolbar. The largest size is 10 tiles wide by 10 tiles tall. Furthermore The report is written as normal text, so knowledge of HTML is not required. You can use this very post as a starting point, if you’d like. Django markdown is django application that allows use markdown wysiwyg in flatpages, admin forms and other forms. So the final cost of the shirt is $30 - $12 = $18. R Markdown is an amazing tool that allows you to blend bits of R code with ordinary text and produce well-formatted data analysis reports very quickly. Markdown Formatting. Markdown([**kwargs])¶ The same options are available when initializing the markdown. This is just plain old Markdown that lets you render text in **bold** or _italics_. R Markdown is a file format for making dynamic documents with R. Both SAS ODS Report Writing Interface and R Markdown are suggested to be used in the process of patient profile generation, they always can meet your requirements easily and effectively. To learn more, see Set dashboard permissions. js presentation. title[ # Hello, R Markdown! ]. With R Markdown, you can easily create reproducible data analysis reports, presentations, dashboards, interactive applications, books, dissertations, websites. Chapter 40 Reproducible projects with RStudio and R markdown. Luckily the R community has been active in developing R interfaces to some popular javascript libraries to enable R users to create interactive visualizations without knowing any javascript. PS just for clarity in case someone else like me is not familar with R Markdown parametric reports the value output_dir: ". Images, in particular, are a powerful means of communication in a report, whether they be data visualizations, diagrams, or pictures. Markdown is designed to be easy to write, and, even more importantly, easy to read: A Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain text, without looking like it’s been marked up with tags or formatting instructions. R Markdown is a great tool for integrating data analysis and report writing, but it can be a bit daunting to get started. manner, Rmarkdown is a better choice. 2012-11-09 JavaScript · Combine R and JS applications like D3. Rmd in the automating folder you just created. You can: Transform your file into a pdf, html, or Microsoft Word document—even a slideshow—at the click of a button. 29 July 2013. Please include with your report: (1) the example input; (2) the output you expected; (3) the output Markdown actually produced. Static R Markdown reports: If the document encompasses only static elements, you can render it in different file formats, such as. The developers of RStudio have made creating R packages quite easy. The reports shows the data completeness status of MeteoSwiss' observation network (SwissMetNet). 1 Output Metadata. write(str(row[0]) + \", \" + str(row[1]) + \", \" + str((float(row[2]) + 180) % 360 - 180) +\", \" + str(row[3]) + \",\" + str(row[4]) + \"\ \") ",. 28[3] Apk Premium latest is a Productivity Android app. In our last post we looked at how we can use R Markdown to produce tables of data ending in this report. For instance, you could use a reproducible pipeline which uses a sequence of R scripts to download, import, and transform your data, then use an R Markdown document to produce a final report. R Markdown uses markdown syntax, which provides […]. Tips and tricks for working with images and figures in R Markdown documents Posted on June 19, 2017 by [email protected] Automating Report Content. When I had to convert HTML+CSS Rmd reports to PDF a couple of years ago, I ultimately found that it was easiest to just pipe the HTML output itself through wkhtmltopdf, which uses WebKit to render your report as PDF. 2 Report History. stitch(): feed a template with an R script. I start with a. How to produce a data analysis report using R Markdown. We will show how RStudio Connect can manage multiple variations of that report. Mostly, Markdown is just regular text with a few non-alphabetic characters thrown in, like # or *. R Markdown is a free package, so if you have. Scripts and data for a series of blogs at www. Use a productive notebook interface to weave together narrative text and code to produce elegantly formatted output. The big one for me is table support. You can turn on/off some features of the Tufte style in HTML output. Parameters to the report will control the analysis; a single source document produces many different outputs. markdown使用环境 你已经学会使用markdown了,以后就可以开始用markdown写作了。理论上任意一款文本编辑器都可以写markdown(写完之后再转换成你需要的格式就可以),但有些专门为markdown设计的编辑器,拥有写作过程中所见即所得的功能(如图,左边是纯markdown写作. When I had to convert HTML+CSS Rmd reports to PDF a couple of years ago, I ultimately found that it was easiest to just pipe the HTML output itself through wkhtmltopdf, which uses WebKit to render your report as PDF. This is an introduction to the use of Markdown with embedded R code to create dynamic documents in multiple formats, e. R Markdown. R markdown documents consist of a header, code chunks and text. VERSION HISTORY. The first few lines you see in the R Markdown report are known as the YAML. Fork me on GitHub. To make a report:. On line 17, change the font-family of all the text in your report (including headers, except R code chunks) to "Bookman", serif. The magical process that turns your R Markdown to HTML is like so: foo. R Markdown preview pane not showing evaluated inline R commands windows 10. The R Markdown file below contains three code chunks. (Is there a way for me to adjust the size of the picture to my liking)? If anyone knows anything cool/formatting about R Markdown could you also let me know? I know that # makes a big title for a paragraph, and ** ** bolds. Rmd file at File New File R Markdown. You should first read the page about Markdown. The publication of classic Marp app has ended. This was news to me until this week. One can also cut out the middle-man (Rmd) and generate the exact same HTML, PDF and Word reports using native R scripts. The blocks of R code are called `chunks` and you can treat: them as individual little segments of code, you can jump back and forth between them,. ### Viewing R Markdown report on HPCC cluster R Markdown reports located on UCR's HPCC Cluster can be viewed locally in a web browser (without moving the source HTML) by creating a symbolic link from a user's `. Check working directory. This app takes one input value, and passes it as a parameter to an. As RMarkdown grows as an acceptable reproducible manuscript format, using knitr to generate a report summary is becoming common practice. Line Break in R Markdown Reports / R Notebooks Lately I have been struggling to find a way to accomplish a line break in an R Markdown Report / Notebook. A simple, step-by-step example explaining exactly how to output HTML or PDF files from R. TLDR: This tutorial teaches you how to install LaTeX, R and R Markdown on macOS High Sierra. title[ # Hello, R Markdown! ]. R code chunks. The first one. Anciennement video2brain - Transform the findings from your data science projects into high-quality reports and presentations with R Markdown and RStudio. The options for the html_pretty engine are mostly compatible with the default html_document (see the documentation) with a few exceptions:. markdown-styles. ; Describe the ideal location to store an image associated with an R markdown report so that knitr can find it when it renders a file. This includes both manually triggered and scheduled execution of content (See section 5. In this post I'd like to introduce the R Markdown template for business reports by INWTlab. Remove messages from R markdown report 0 votes I am preparing an R-markdown report and while loading the "ggplot2" and "dplyr" packages, the package loading messages also come up in the report. One can also cut out the middle-man (Rmd) and generate the exact same HTML, PDF and Word reports using native R scripts. Report your data with R Markdown - [Narrator] R Markdown provides us the ability to create PDF document that contain both R code and R output. We may do that with published papers, blog posts, PowerPoint presentations, or books. R Markdown: The Definitive Guide is the first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. 50 Updated: 8/14 1. It's important that you can present your data-driven findings in an accessible format, whether that's in reports or presentations. I want to write a indicator variable symbol in the report, like How do you get \mathbb{1} to work (characteristic function of a set)?. There follow some sections, all with tables or charts. Report your data with R Markdown - [Martin] Data science is as much about communication, as it is about understanding. We normally think of R Markdown documents as producing a single output artifact, such as an HTML or PDF file. This was news to me until this week. Pandoc Markdown is where you will write the body of the report. pdf, or even Word. See screenshots, read the latest customer reviews, and compare ratings for Easy Writer - Distraction free Markdown.